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Additional tests for Canine

Additional tests for Canine

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Comprehensive Genetic Wellness Checkup
Studies have shown that cats and dogs are at least 100 times more likely than human to develop genetic disorders. An animal may appear healthy now, however, it can develop a genetic disease later in life and pass the defective gene to future generations. Amvet Biosciences can unlock the genetic code of DNA empowering you to plan and act proactively at an early stage.

We offer the following canine DNA tests

• Degenerative Myelopathy (DM)

DM is a progressive neurological disorder that affects the spinal cord of dogs. The gene mutation has been found in more than 70 breeds. Dogs that have inherited defective genes will experience a breakdown of the cells responsible for sending and receiving signals from the brain, resulting in neurological symptoms. The disease often begins with an unsteady gait, and the dog may wobble when they attempt to walk. As the disease progresses, the dog's hind legs will weaken and eventually the dog will be unable to walk at all. DM moves up the body, so if the disease is allowed to progress, the dog will eventually be unable to hold his bladder and will lose normal function in its front legs. The onset of DM generally occurs later in life starting at an average age of about 8 years. The frequency of disease gene varies across different breeds. Pembroke Welsh Corgis, Cardigan Welsh Corgi, German Shepherd, Collie and Boxer are at the highest risk of being affected by DM.

• Hyperuricosuria (HUU) 

HUU refers to the presence of excessive amounts of uric acid in the urine. This trait predisposes dogs to form stones in their bladders or sometimes kidneys. These stones often must be removed surgically and can be difficult to treat. Hyperuricosuria is inherited as an autosomal recessive trait. The trait can occur in any breed but is significantly more common in Dalmatian, Bulldog and Black Russian Terrier. Affected dogs are prone to develop bladder/kidney stones. The carrier frequency of HUU in affected breeds is about 14.5%.

• Malignant Hyperthermia (MH)

Malignant Hyperthermia or malignant hyperpyrexia is an autosomal dominant genetic mutation. It is a life-threatening condition that is usually triggered by exposure to certain drugs used for general anaesthesia, specifically the volatile anaesthetic agents and the neuromuscular blocking agent. Pets predisposed to malignant hyperthermia are also sensitive to certain ingredients present in drugs and food such as caffeine. In susceptible animals, these drugs can induce a drastic and uncontrolled increase in muscle oxidative metabolism, which overwhelms the body's capacity to supply oxygen, remove carbon dioxide, and regulate body temperature, eventually leading to circulatory collapse and death if not treated quickly. Breed with the highest risk of MH includes Australian Shepherd, Collie and Long-haired Whippet. However, the carrier frequency of the disease gene in German Shepherd is about 10% and in mixed-breed dog is about 5%.

• Multi Drug and Ivermectin Sensitivity (MDR1) 

MDR1 results from a mutation in the multi-drug resistance gene. This gene encodes a glycoprotein that is responsible for pumping many drugs and other toxins out of the brain. Dogs with the mutant gene cannot pump certain drugs out of the brain as a normal dog would, which may result in abnormal neurologic signs. The result may be an illness requiring an extended hospital stay or even death. This test is most commonly used for Ivermectin sensitivity but many other drugs are responsible for MDR1 symptoms. MDR1 is more common in Collies and related breeds.

• von Willebrand's Disease (vWD)

vWD is caused by a lack of von Willebrand factor which is a protein that plays a key role in the blood clotting process resulting in prolonged bleeding. The disorder occurs in varying degrees of severity ranging from trivial bleeding to excessive life threatening haemorrhages. Symptoms include spontaneous bleeding from the nose, gum and other mucous membranes. Excessive bleeding occurs after an injury, trauma or a surgery. Often dogs don’t show clinical signs until something starts the bleeding, such as nail trimming, teething, spaying, sterilizing, tail docking, cropping or other causes. Bleeding also occurs internally in the stomach, intestines, urinary tracts, genitals and/or into the joints. Doberman is the highest risk in vWD; frequencies of carrier and affected being 49% and 26%, respectively. About 1% and 9% of Poodles are affected by and carrier of vWD.

• Hereditary Cataract (HC)

Cataracts are a clouding of lens of the eye caused by a breakdown of tissue in the eye. This generally results in an inability to see clearly, and can cause total blindness. Some forms of cataracts in dogs are hereditary, they are known as Hereditary Cataracts (HC). Dogs are typically affected bilaterally with onset typically occurring between 1 and 3 years of age. Cataracts usually begin small and grow progressively, though the speed of growth is highly variable. Some cataracts will grow so slowly that the dog's vision remains relatively clear, while others will grow such that the dog will quickly go blind. Corrective surgery is possible, though it is costly and is not always effective. About 23% of Australian Shepherd and 8% of Staffordshire Bull Terriers are carriers of HC.

• Cobalamin Malabsorption (B12)

Dogs with vitamin B12 malabsorption cannot properly absorb vitamin B12 from the small intestine and kidneys. Affected dogs have an increase in certain proteins in their urine, however, symptoms may not be readily recognized by owners. Initial signs of this disorder include a loss of appetite, lack of energy, poor weight gain and poor muscle mass. Puppies with this disorder will fail to grow normally. Anaemia can occur. Treatment includes vitamin B12 supplementation. 

• Cone Degeneration (CD)

CD causes day blindness due to degeneration of the retinal cones. CD can be diagnosed in the early weeks of the affected dog’s life. Between 8 and 12 weeks of age, when retinal development is normally completed in dogs, signs of vision problems are noticeable. The pups become day-blind and are photophobic – meaning that exposure to bright light is irritating. Vision in dim light remains normal. The retina of the affected dog initially appears normal when examined by an ophthalmologist. However, electroretinography response from the degenerating cones declines with age and is undetectable in the mature CD-affected dog.

• Collie Eye Anomaly (CEA) 

CEA is also known as Choroidal Hypoplasia. It is an inherited bilateral eye disease common in a number of dog breeds. CEA causes abnormal development in layers of tissue in the eye under the retina called the choroid. The degree of choroid abnormality varies between individual dogs, and even between the same dog's eyes. In most cases the disorder is present at birth and can be detected in puppies as young as 4-8 weeks of age. CEA is presented in mild or severe form. In mildly affected dogs, choroidal thinning is the only detectable abnormality and the dog retains normal vision throughout life. Severe form of CEA is rare and can lead to total blindness. There is currently no treatment for this disease.

• Congenital Myotonic (CM) 

This is a hereditary pathogenic condition affecting skeletal muscle and is characterized by a delayed relaxation of the muscles following a stimulus or after cessation of voluntary activity. Affected animals have significant excessive growth of the muscles (muscle hypertrophy). CM results from genetic defects in the skeletal muscle chloride ion channel causing reduced conductance. Signs include difficulty in rising after a period of rest, a stiff and stilted gait when walking, and a bunny-hop type movement when running. In addition, there are increased respiratory sounds, difficulty in swallowing, abnormal bark and dental abnormalities. About 2% and 20% of miniature schnauzers are affected and carriers of CM, respectively.

• Canine Multifocal Retinopathy Type 1 (CMR1) 

This is a recessively inherited eye disease causing retinal deformation. The characteristic of CMR is lesions on the retina. The disease generally develops in young dogs before 4 months old and may progress slowly. Some dogs affected with CMR1 do not show clinical symptoms of disease until later in life. Lesions in the retina may disappear with no remaining sign, while some lesions leave a wrinkled area. Some leave a lasting lesion and form a blister. About 1% and 18% of high-risk breeds are affected and carriers of the CMR1 mutant gene respectively.

• Cyclic Neutropenia / Gray Collie Syndrome (CN) 

CN is a genetic disorder that affects the bone marrow stem cells, which are responsible for developing all blood cells in the body. This disorder leads to cyclic fluctuation in the number of blood cells, the number of the neutrophil falls sharply every 10 to 12 days, and then it returns to normal level. Affected puppies look weaker and smaller than their litter siblings and have a noticeable pale gray, pinkish gray or beige coat colour. Due to the changing number of white blood cells, the puppies become susceptible to infections and by the age of 10 to 12 weeks and they start exhibiting various clinical signs such as fever, diarrhea, eye and/or respiratory infections.

• Centronuclear Myopathy (CNM) 

CNM is a recessively inherited muscular disease. At birth, affected puppies are indistinguishable from their normal littermates but from two weeks of age, a progressive significant weight loss is observed. At one month of age, the absence of tendon reflexes is noticed and used as an early and reliable diagnosis. The age of onset of the disabling symptoms and generalized muscle weakness varies between 2 to 5 months. The pup will never recover from this disabling disease. Clinical signs are generally stabilized at one year of age. About 13.9% of Labrador retrievers are CNM carriers.

• Canine Cystinuria (Cys) 

Cys is a genetic disorder in which the kidney is not able to process cystine amino acid correctly. Cystine accumulates in the urine and clumps together to form calculi (kidney or bladder stone). These stones can cause serious illness such as urinary blockage. Cys may take several years to develop to serious condition.

• Exercise Induced Collapse (EIC)

EIC predominantly occurs in Labrador Retrievers but also seen in Chesapeake Bay Retrievers and Curly Coated Retrievers. Affected dogs show signs of muscle weakness, incoordination, and life-threatening collapse when participating in strenuous exercise or activity. Affected dogs can tolerate mild to moderate exercise, but just 5 to 20 minutes of strenuous activity, can induce weakness or collapse. Dogs with EIC usually cannot continue with intense retriever training, but can live normal lives as house pets. Nervous system, cardiovascular and musculoskeletal examinations are unremarkable as is routine blood analysis at rest and during an episode of collapse. About 30-40% Labrador retrievers are carrier of the disease gene and 3-14% are affected by EIC.

• Mucopolysaccharidosis VII (MPS VII) 

MPS VII an inherited disease classified as a lysosomal storage disease. Lysosomes are "bags" within cells of the body, filled with special enzymes, which disassemble molecules in an orderly manner. Genetic mutation leads to the inactivation of the enzymes resulting in non-degraded molecules accumulate in lysosomes, and the cells become sick or die, which leads to disease. The clinical signs are related to brain disease, appear between 2-4 years of age, and include tremor, difficulty in balancing, walking, and negotiating obstacles such as stairs. The disease is progressive. Owners have chosen euthanasia, usually 1-2 years after recognizing clinical signs. 

• Neonatal Encephalopathy with Seizures (NEWS)

NEWS is a fatal developmental brain disease which is inherited as an autosomal recessive trait. Most affected puppies die shortly after birth. With intensive nursing care, affected pups can be kept alive for a few weeks; however, unfortunately none have survived past their fifth week. About 3% and 36% of American standard poodles are affected by and carrier of NEWS, respectively.

• Osteogenesis Imperfecta (OI) 

OI is an inherited disease that causes defective collagen, leading to extremely fragile bones and teeth. The disease is caused by a mutation in SERPINH1, a gene that promotes correct folding of the collagen. Affected puppies suffer from bone fractures after minor trauma, which can result from playing. The teeth are fragile and pink due to thin enamel, which exposes the underlying blood vessels. The overall frequency of OI carriers is 13% in the population and about 20% of dogs in Germany are OI carriers.

• Pyruvate Kinase Deficiency (PKDef) 

PKDef is an inherited haemolytic anemia caused by a defect in the enzyme pyruvate kinase. Loss of function of this enzyme results in premature death of red blood cells. Affected dogs do not have sufficient quantities of red blood cells to adequately supply the body with oxygen. Clinically, dogs with PKDef present with a severe anemia, increased iron levels, increased bone density, may have an enlarged spleen and liver as well as fibrous connective tissue replacement of bone marrow cells. Bone marrow and liver failure typically occur by 5 years of age. The disease is characterised by lack of energy, dramatic exercise intolerance and post exercise collapse. Affected dogs may have a shortened lifespan due to heart and lung complications. About 3% and 35% of Beagles are affected by and carriers of PKDef, respectively.

• Primary Lens Luxation (PLL)

PLL is a well-recognised, painful and blinding inherited eye condition that affects many breeds of dogs. In affected dogs the zonular fibres that support the lens breakdown or disintegrate, causing the lens to fall into the wrong position within the eye. If the lens falls into the anterior chamber of the eye glaucoma and loss of vision can occur quickly. 

• Progressive Retinal Atrophy (PRA) 

PRA is a disease of the retina that results in degeneration and atrophy (loss or wasting) of the light-sensitive layer of cells at the back of the eye. This leads to a progressive decline in the quality of vision. Clinical signs start to develop at 1 to 2 years of age initially leading tonight blindness and progressing to total blindness at around 3 to 5 years of age. Diagnosis of PRA is normally made by ophthalmoscopic examination. Owners may become aware of this condition when vision becomes significantly impaired and, for example, the dog may start to become disorientated or bump into objects. Affected dogs will adapt to their handicap as long as their environment remains constant, and they are not faced with situations requiring excellent vision.


How to Collect DNA Sample
1. The animal's oral cavity should be clean. It is recommended not to serve food or water 1 hour before sampling.
2. Write the name of the pet on the sampling tube.
3. Take out the swab from the sampling tube. Beware not to touch the tip (sampling area) of the swab.
4. Scrub the swab against the inside surface of the cheek (mucosa) for at least 5 seconds. Rotate the swab gently to collect cheek cells.
5. Allow the swab to air dry for 30 minutes.
6. Put the swab back to the sampling tube.
7. Repeat steps 3 - 6 to collect DNA from the other side of the cheek of the same animal.
8. Fill out the attached DNA submission form. The information should correspond to that on the tube.
9. Mail the DNA samples and submission form to us.

Order Information
1. The sample collection kit (including 2 DNA collection tube, 1 DNA submission form and 1 envelop with return address) (per animal) will be mailed to your address within 48 hours after we received your order.
2. Once you have received our sample collection kit, please follow the guidelines mentioned above to finish the sample collection as soon as possible.
3. The DNA test certificate will be sent by mail and email in 12 working days after we received complete DNA samples and submission form.

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